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Australia Climate

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Australia’s climate is governed largely by its size and by the hot, sinking air of the subtropical high pressure belt. This moves north and south with the seasons. But it is variable, with frequent droughts lasting several seasons—thought to be caused in part by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The climate varies widely due to its large geographical size, but by far the largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid. Only the south-east and south-west corners have a temperate climate and moderately fertile soil. The northern part of the country has a tropical climate, varied between tropical rainforests, grasslands and desert.

Because Australia is a small continent, separated from polar regions by the Southern Ocean, it is not subject to the movements of frigid polar air that sweep over the continents in the northern hemisphere during winter. Consequently, its winter is relatively mild, so that there aren’t any great contrast between summer and winter temperatures that is present in the northern continents. Yet in many parts of the country, seasonal highs and lows can be considerable: temperatures have ranged from above 50 °C (122 °F) to well below zero. Nonetheless, minimum temperatures are moderated.

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation is associated with seasonal abnormality in many areas in the world. Australia is one of the continents most affected and experiences extensive droughts alongside considerable wet periods. Occasionally a dust storm will blanket a region and there are reports of the occasional tornado. Tropical cyclones, heat waves, bushfires and frosts in the country are also associated with the Southern Oscillation. Rising levels of salinity and desertification in some areas is ravaging the landscape.

Climate change in Australia is a highly contentious issue. Temperatures in the country have risen following an increasing trend of global warming between the years of 1910 to 2004 by approximately 0.7 °C. Overnight minimum temperatures have warmed more rapidly than daytime maximum temperatures in recent years. The late-20th century warming has been largely attributed to the increased greenhouse effect. According to the Bureau of Meteorology, 80% of the land has less than 600 mm (24 in) of rainfall per year and 50% has even less than 300 mm (12 in). As a whole, Australia has a very low annual average rainfall of 419 mm (16 in).

States and Territories

Australian Capital Territory

Light snow on Mount Tennent, which features dry sclerophyll woodlands.

Light snow on Mount Tennent, which features dry sclerophyll woodlands.

 Because of its elevation (650 m (2,130 ft)) and distance from the coast, the Australian Capital Territory experiences a continental climate, unlike many other Australian cities whose climates are moderated by the sea. Canberra has relatively mild and wet summers, although hot days occur from time to time. Canberra has cold winters with occasional fog and frequent frosts. Many of the higher mountains in the territory’s south-west are snow-covered for at least part of the winter. Thunderstorms can occur between October and March, and annual rainfall is 623 mm (25 in), with rainfall highest in spring and summer and lowest in winter.

The highest maximum temperature recorded in the ACT was 42.8 °C (109.0 °F) at Acton on 11 January 1939. The lowest minimum temperature was −14.6 °C (5.7 °F) at Gudgenby on 11 July 1971.

 New South Wales

Over half of New South Wales has an arid or semi-arid climate. However, the eastern portion has a temperate climate, ranging from humid subtropical to the Central Coast and most of Sydney, and oceanic to the south coast. The Snowy Mountains region in the south-east falls in the alpine climate/highland climate zone, with cool to cold weather all year around and snowfalls in the winter. Further inland, the climate gets semi-arid and a desert climate towards the western part of the state.

Dubbo's location in a transitional area allows a large temperature variation during the year, with high summer temperatures typical of the Western Plains of state and colder sub-zero temperatures typical of the Central Tablelands in winter.

Dubbo’s location in a transitional area allows a large temperature variation during the year, with high summer temperatures typical of the Western Plains of state and colder sub-zero temperatures typical of the Central Tablelands in winter.

The weather in the southern half of the state is generally warm to hot in summer and cool in the winter. The seasons are more defined in the southern half of the state, especially as one moves inland, towards South West Slopes, Central West and the Riverina region. Rainfall usually peaks in the summer in most of parts of the state. Though, the Riverina region, which is in the southern-central part of the state, bordering Victoria, has drier summers and a winter rainfall peak.

The warmest region is the north-west part of the state, where summers are very hot, and winters cooler and drier. The weather in the northeast region of the state, or the North Coast, bordering Queensland, is hot and humid in the summer, with a rainfall peak, and mild in winter with more sunshine, and little seasonal temperature difference. The Northern Tablelands, which are also on the north coast, have relatively mild summers and cold winters, due to their high elevation on the Great Dividing Range.

The coldest region is the Snowy Mountains where the snow and frost continues for quite long period during the winter months. The Blue Mountains, Southern Tablelands and Central Tablelands, which are situated on the Great Dividing Range, have mild to warm summers and cold winters, although not as severe as those in the Snowy Mountains. Interestingly, some places situated in or around the Range have recorded freezing and near-freezing lows in nearly every month of the year, a feat not experienced in many other places of similar latitude and altitude in the northern hemisphere.

The highest maximum temperature recorded was 49.8 °C (121.6 °F) at Menindee in the state’s west on 10 January 1939. The lowest minimum temperature was −23.0 °C (−9.4 °F) at Charlotte Pass on 29 June 1994 in the Snowy Mountains. This is also the lowest temperature recorded in the whole of Australia excluding Australian Antarctic Territory.

Rainfall varies throughout the state. The far north-west receives the least, less than 180 mm (7 in) annually, while the east receives between 600 to 1,200 mm (24 to 47 in) of rain.

CityJanuary Max. TempJanuary Min. TempJuly Max. TempJuly Min. TempNo. Clear daysAnnual Rainfall
Sydney26 °C (79 °F)19 °C (66 °F)16 °C (61 °F)8 °C (46 °F)1041,222 mm (48 in)
Penrith31 °C (88 °F)18 °C (64 °F)18 °C (64 °F)5 °C (41 °F)103696 mm (27 in)
Wollongong26 °C (79 °F)18 °C (64 °F)17 °C (63 °F)8 °C (46 °F)1071,346 mm (53 in)
Coffs Harbour27 °C (81 °F)19 °C (66 °F)19 °C (66 °F)8 °C (46 °F)1221,679 mm (66 in)
Armidale]27 °C (81 °F)13 °C (55 °F)12 °C (54 °F)0 °C (32 °F)106791 mm (31 in)
Orange26 °C (79 °F)12 °C (54 °F)9 °C (48 °F)1 °C (34 °F)100898 mm (35 in)
Wagga Wagga[13]32 °C (90 °F)16 °C (61 °F)13 °C (55 °F)3 °C (37 °F)124566 mm (22 in)
Broken Hill[14]33 °C (91 °F)19 °C (66 °F)15 °C (59 °F)5 °C (41 °F)137245 mm (10 in)

Northern Territory

Average monthly maximum
temperature in Northern Territory
MonthDarwinAlice Springs
January31.8 °C (89.2 °F)36.4 °C (97.5 °F)
February31.4 °C (88.5 °F)35.1 °C (95.2 °F)
March31.9 °C (89.4 °F)32.7 °C (90.9 °F)
April32.7 °C (90.9 °F)28.2 °C (82.8 °F)
May32.0 °C (89.6 °F)23.0 °C (73.4 °F)
June30.6 °C (87.1 °F)19.8 °C (67.6 °F)
July30.5 °C (86.9 °F)19.7 °C (67.5 °F)
August31.3 °C (88.3 °F)22.5 °C (72.5 °F)
September32.5 °C (90.5 °F)27.2 °C (81.0 °F)
October33.2 °C (91.8 °F)31.0 °C (87.8 °F)
November33.3 °C (91.9 °F)33.6 °C (92.5 °F)
December32.6 °C (90.7 °F)35.4 °C (95.7 °F)
Source: Bureau of Meteorology

The Northern Territory has two distinctive climate zones. The northern end, including Darwin, has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw) with high humidity and two seasons, the wet (November to April) and dry season (May to October). During the dry season nearly every day is warm and sunny, and afternoon humidity averages around 30%. There is very little rainfall between May and September. In the coolest months of June and July, the daily minimum temperature may dip as low as 14 °C (57 °F), but very rarely lower, and frost has never been recorded.

Monsoonal squall nears Darwin

Monsoonal squall nears Darwin

The wet season is associated with tropical cyclones and monsoon rains. The majority of rainfall occurs between December and March (the Southern Hemisphere summer), when thunderstorms are common and afternoon relative humidity averages over 70% during the wettest months. On average more than 1,570 mm (62 in) of rain falls in the north. Thunderstorms can produce spectacular lightning displays.

The central region is the desert centre of the country, which includes Alice Springs and Uluru, and is arid or semi-arid with little rain usually falling during the hottest months from October to March. Its seasons are more defined than the northern parts, with summers being very hot, where temperatures often exceed 35 °C (95 °F) on average and winters relatively cool with average minimum temperatures dipping as low as 5 °C (41 °F), with a few frosty nights. Central Australia receives less than 250 mm (10 in) of rain per year.

The highest maximum temperature recorded in the territory was 48.3 °C (118.9 °F) at Finke on 1 and 2 January 1960. The lowest minimum temperature was −7.5 °C (18.5 °F) at Alice Springs on 12 July 1976.

Queensland

Grassland typical of Queensland and mountain ranges near Proserpine.

Grassland typical of Queensland and mountain ranges near Proserpine.

Because of its size, there is significant variation in climate across the state. Low rainfall and hot summers are typical for the inland west, a monsoonal ‘wet’ season in the far north, and warm subtropical conditions along the coastal strip. Inland and in southern ranges cooler temperatures are experienced, especially at nights. The climate of the coastal strip is influenced by warm ocean waters, keeping the region free from extremes of temperature and providing moisture for rainfall.

There are five predominant climatic zones in Queensland, based on temperature and humidity:

  • hot humid summer (far north and coastal)
  • warm humid summer (coastal elevated hinterlands and coastal south-east)
  • hot dry summer, mild winter (central west)
  • hot dry summer, cold winter (southern west)
  • temperate – warm summer, cold winter (inland south-east, e.g. Granite Belt)

However, most of the Queensland populace experience two weather seasons: a winter period of rather warm temperatures and minimal rainfall and a sultry summer period of hot, sticky temperatures and higher levels of rainfall.

The highest maximum temperature observed in the state is 49.5 °C (121.1 °F) at Birdsville on 24 December 1972. The temperature of 53.1 °C (127.6 °F) at Cloncurry on 16 January 1889 is not considered official; the figure quoted from Birdsville is the next highest, so that record is considered as being official.

The lowest minimum temperature is −10.6 °C (12.9 °F) at Stanthorpe on 23 June 1961 and at The Hermitage on 12 July 1965.

CityJanuary Max. TempJanuary Min. TempJuly Max. TempJuly Min. TempNo. Clear daysAnnual Rainfall
Brisbane30 °C (86 °F)21 °C (70 °F)22 °C (72 °F)10 °C (50 °F)1231,022 mm (40 in)
Gold Coast29 °C (84 °F)22 °C (72 °F)21 °C (70 °F)12 °C (54 °F)n/a1,273 mm (50 in)
Mackay30 °C (86 °F)24 °C (75 °F)21 °C (70 °F)13 °C (55 °F)1231,610 mm (63 in)
Cairns31 °C (88 °F)24 °C (75 °F)26 °C (79 °F)17 °C (63 °F)901,991 mm (78 in)
Townsville31 °C (88 °F)24 °C (75 °F)25 °C (77 °F)14 °C (57 °F)1211,132 mm (45 in)
Toowoomba28 °C (82 °F)17 °C (63 °F)16 °C (61 °F)5 °C (41 °F)114952 mm (37 in)
Rockhampton32 °C (90 °F)22 °C (72 °F)23 °C (73 °F)10 °C (50 °F)116812 mm (32 in)
Mt Isa37 °C (99 °F)24 °C (75 °F)25 °C (77 °F)9 °C (48 °F)175462 mm (18 in)

South Australia

Typical desert landscape north of Coober Pedy.

Typical desert landscape north of Coober Pedy.

The majority of the state has the arid and semi-arid climates. The southern coastal parts of the state have a Mediterranean climate with mild wet winters and hot dry summers. The highest rainfall occurs along the southern coasts and the Mount Lofty Ranges (with an average annual rainfall of 1,200 millimetres (47 in) in the vicinity of Mount Lofty); the lowest rainfall occurs in the Lake Eyre basin where the average annual totals are less than 150 millimetres (6 in) and possibly even 100 millimetres (4 in). Most of the rain in the southern districts of the State fall during the winter months when the sub-tropical high-pressure belt is displaced to the north over the Australian continent.

South Australia’s mean temperature range is 29 °C (84 °F) in January and 15 °C (59 °F) in July. Daily temperatures in parts of the state in January and February can be up to 48 °C (118 °F). The highest maximum temperature was recorded as 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) at Oodnadatta on 2 January 1960, which is the highest official temperature recorded in Australia. The lowest minimum temperature was −8.0 °C (17.6 °F) at Yongala on 20 July 1976.

CityJanuary Max. TempJanuary Min. TempJuly Max. TempJuly Min. TempNo. Clear daysAnnual Rainfall
Adelaide29 °C (84 °F)17 °C (63 °F)15 °C (59 °F)7 °C (45 °F)87551 mm (22 in)
Mount Gambier25 °C (77 °F)11 °C (52 °F)13 °C (55 °F)5 °C (41 °F)40710 mm (28 in)
Whyalla30 °C (86 °F)18 °C (64 °F)17 °C (63 °F)5 °C (41 °F)63267 mm (11 in)
Port Augusta34 °C (93 °F)19 °C (66 °F)18 °C (64 °F)5 °C (41 °F)142218 mm (9 in)
Oodnadatta38 °C (100 °F)23 °C (73 °F)20 °C (68 °F)6 °C (43 °F)182176 mm (7 in)

Tasmania

Snow field on top of Ben Lomond, in northeast Tasmania. See also: Climate of Tasmania

Snow field on top of Ben Lomond, in northeast Tasmania. See also: Climate of Tasmania

Tasmania has a cool temperate climate with four seasons. Summer lasts from December to February when the average maximum sea temperature is 21 °C (70 °F) and inland areas around Launceston reach 24 °C (75 °F). Other inland areas are much cooler with Liawenee, located on the Central Plateau, one of the coldest places in Australia with temperatures in February ranging between 4 to 17 °C (39 to 63 °F). Autumn lasts between March and May and experiences changeable weather, where summer weather patterns gradually take on the shape of winter patterns.[34]

The highest recorded maximum temperature in Tasmania was 42.2 °C (108.0 °F) at Scamander on 30 January 2009, during the 2009 south-eastern Australia heat wave. Tasmania’s lowest recorded minimum temperature was −13 °C (8.6 °F) on 30 June 1983, at Butlers Gorge, Shannon, and Tarraleah.

CityJanuary Max. TempJanuary Min. TempJuly Max. TempJuly Min. TempNo. Clear daysAnnual Rainfall
Hobart22 °C (72 °F)12 °C (54 °F)12 °C (54 °F)5 °C (41 °F)41615 mm (24 in)
Launceston25 °C (77 °F)11 °C (52 °F)12 °C (54 °F)2 °C (36 °F)50630 mm (25 in)
Devonport21 °C (70 °F)12 °C (54 °F)13 °C (55 °F)5 °C (41 °F)56773 mm (30 in)
Strahan21 °C (70 °F)11 °C (52 °F)12 °C (54 °F)5 °C (41 °F)161,544 mm (61 in)

Victoria

Average monthly maximum
temperature in Victoria
MonthMelbourneMildura
January25.8 °C (78.4 °F)32.8 °C (91.0 °F)
February25.8 °C (78.4 °F)32.7 °C (90.9 °F)
March23.8 °C (74.8 °F)29.3 °C (84.7 °F)
April20.2 °C (68.4 °F)24.1 °C (75.4 °F)
May16.6 °C (61.9 °F)19.6 °C (67.3 °F)
June14.0 °C (57.2 °F)16.0 °C (60.8 °F)
July13.4 °C (56.1 °F)15.4 °C (59.7 °F)
August14.9 °C (58.8 °F)17.7 °C (63.9 °F)
September17.2 °C (63.0 °F)21.1 °C (70.0 °F)
October19.6 °C (67.3 °F)25.0 °C (77.0 °F)
November21.8 °C (71.2 °F)29.0 °C (84.2 °F)
December24.1 °C (75.4 °F)31.7 °C (89.1 °F)
Source: Bureau of Meteorology

Victoria has a varied climate despite its small size. It ranges from semi-arid and hot in the north-west, to temperate and cool along the coast. Victoria’s main land feature, the Great Dividing Range, produces a cooler, mountain climate in the centre of the state.

Victoria’s southernmost position on the Australian mainland means it is cooler and wetter than other mainland states and territories. The coastal plain south of the Great Dividing Range has Victoria’s mildest climate. Air from the Southern Ocean helps reduce the heat of summer and the cold of winter. Melbourne and other large cities are located in this temperate region.

The Mallee and upper Wimmera are Victoria’s warmest regions with hot winds blowing from nearby deserts. Average temperatures top 30 °C (86 °F) during summer and 15 °C (59 °F) in winter. Victoria’s highest maximum temperature of 48.8 °C (119.8 °F) was recorded in Hopetoun on 7 February 2009, during the 2009 south-eastern Australia heat wave. A screentemperature of 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) was recorded on 7 January 1906 in Mildura.

The Victorian Alps in the north-east are the coldest part of Victoria. The Alps are part of the Great Dividing Range mountain system extending east-west through the centre of Victoria. Average temperatures are less than 9 °C (48 °F) in winter and below 0 °C (32 °F) in the highest parts of the ranges. The state’s lowest minimum temperature of −11.7 °C (10.9 °F) was recorded at Omeo on 13 June 1965, and again at Falls Creek on 3 July 1970.

Victoria is the wettest Australian state after Tasmania. Rainfall in Victoria increases from north to south, with higher averages in areas of high altitude. Median annual rainfall exceeds 1,800 mm (71 in) in some parts of the north-east but is less than 250 mm (10 in) in the Mallee.

A temperate rainforest in Great Otway National Park, in the southwestregion of the state.

A temperate rainforest in Great Otway National Park, in the southwestregion of the state.

Rain is heaviest in the Otway Ranges and Gippsland in southern Victoria and in the mountainous north-east. Snow generally falls only in the mountains and hills in the centre of the state. Rain falls most frequently in winter, but summer precipitation is heavier. Rainfall is most reliable in Gippsland and the Western District, making them both leading farming areas. Victoria’s highest recorded daily rainfall was 375 millimetres (14.8 in) at Tanybryn in the Otway Ranges on 22 March 1983.

CityJanuary Max. TempJanuary Min. TempJuly Max. TempJuly Min. TempNo. Clear daysAnnual Rainfall
Melbourne26 °C (79 °F)14 °C (57 °F)14 °C (57 °F)6 °C (43 °F)49648 mm (26 in)
Ballarat25 °C (77 °F)11 °C (52 °F)10 °C (50 °F)3 °C (37 °F)55690 mm (27 in)
Bendigo30 °C (86 °F)14 °C (57 °F)12 °C (54 °F)3 °C (37 °F)110514 mm (20 in)
Mildura32 °C (90 °F)17 °C (63 °F)15 °C (59 °F)4 °C (39 °F)132291 mm (11 in)
Shepparton32 °C (90 °F)15 °C (59 °F)13 °C (55 °F)3 °C (37 °F)n/a452 mm (18 in)
Bairnsdale26 °C (79 °F)13 °C (55 °F)15 °C (59 °F)4 °C (39 °F)60650 mm (26 in)
Warnambool22 °C (72 °F)13 °C (55 °F)13 °C (55 °F)6 °C (43 °F)53743 mm (29 in)
Temperature and precipitation for Victoria.
Source: Bureau of Meteorology, Department of Primary Industries, Australian Natural Resources Atlas
Average January temperatures: Victoria’s north is always hotter than coastal and mountainous areas.
Average July temperatures: Victoria’s hills and ranges are coolest during winter. Snow also falls there.
Average yearly precipitation: Victoria’s rainfall is concentrated in the mountainous north-east and coast.

A four-wheel drive in the Gibson Desert

A four-wheel drive in the Gibson Desert

 Most of Western Australia has a hot arid and semi-arid climate. However, the south-west corner of the state has a Mediterranean climate. The area was originally heavily forested, including large stands of the karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region of Western Australia is in the top nine terrestrial habitats for terrestrial biodiversity, with a higher proportion of endemic species than most other equivalent regions. Due to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area numbers in the top six regions for marine biodiversity, containing the most southerly coral reefs in the world.

Average annual rainfall varies from 300 mm (12 in) at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 mm (55 in) in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, the Southwestern most tip of Australia, but in the months of November to March, although rain still falls, evaporation exceeds rainfall and it is generally very dry. Plants must be adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils. A major reduction in rainfall has been observed, with a greater number of rainfall events in the summer months. The central four-fifths of the state is semi-arid or desert and is lightly inhabited with the only significant activity being mining. Annual rainfall averages about 200 to 250 mm (8 to 10 in), most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer months.

An exception to this is the northern tropical regions. The Kimberley has an extremely hot monsoonal climate with average annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 1,500 mm (20 to 59 in), but there is a very long dry season of 7 months from April to November. Eighty-five percent of the state’s runoff occurs in the Kimberley, but because it occurs in violent floods and because of the insurmountable poverty of the generally shallow soils, the only development has taken place along the Ord River.

A chaparral-like bush land in the Mediterranean region of the state.

A chaparral-like bush land in the Mediterranean region of the state.

 Australia’s tropical/subtropical location and cold waters off the western coast make most of Western Australia a hot desert with aridity a marked feature of a greater part of the continent. These cold waters produce precious little moisture needed on the mainland. A 2005 study by Australian and American researchers investigated the desertification of the interior, and suggested that one explanation was related to human settlers who arrived about 50,000 years ago.

Snowfall in the state is rare, and typically only in the Stirling Range near Albany, the Southwestern most point in WA, as it is the only mountain range far enough south and with sufficient elevation. More rarely, snow can fall on the nearby Porongurup Range. Snow outside these areas is a major event; it usually occurs in hilly areas of south-western Australia. The most widespread low-level snow occurred on 26 June 1956 when snow was reported in the Perth Hills, as far north as Wongan Hills and as far east as Salmon Gums. However, even in the Stirling Range, snowfalls rarely exceed 5 cm (2 in) and rarely settle for more than one day.

The highest observed maximum temperature of 50.5 °C (122.9 °F) was recorded at Mardie Station on 19 February 1998. The lowest minimum temperature recorded was −7.2 °C (19.0 °F) at Eyre Bird Observatory on 17 August 2008.

CityJanuary Max. TempJanuary Min. TempJuly Max. TempJuly Min. TempNo. Clear daysAnnual Rainfall
Perth[51]30 °C (86 °F)18 °C (64 °F)17 °C (63 °F)9 °C (48 °F)131868 mm (34 in)
Albany[52]23 °C (73 °F)15 °C (59 °F)16 °C (61 °F)8 °C (46 °F)45929 mm (37 in)
Kalgoorlie[53]34 °C (93 °F)18 °C (64 °F)17 °C (63 °F)5 °C (41 °F)151266 mm (10 in)
Geraldton[54]32 °C (90 °F)18 °C (64 °F)19 °C (66 °F)9 °C (48 °F)164441 mm (17 in)
Karratha[55]36 °C (97 °F)27 °C (81 °F)26 °C (79 °F)14 °C (57 °F)158297 mm (12 in)
Broome[56]33 °C (91 °F)26 °C (79 °F)29 °C (84 °F)14 °C (57 °F)182613 mm (24 in)

Precipitation

File:Changing cloud cover over Australia.ogv

Australia sits far south of the equator and under a strong, migrating zone of high-pressure called the subtropical ridge; this can lead to some interesting cloud cover. Using an advanced supercomputer climate model called GEOS-5, NASA scientists recreated 19 days of changing cloud cover over Australia. Watch the visualization to explore the movement of different systems that formed across the continent. Look for rising cumulusclouds that appear to bubble up over land each day.

Rain

More than 80% of the continent has an annual rainfall of less than 600 mm (24 in); only Antarctica receives less rainfall than Australia. A place inland near Lake Eyre (in South Australia) would only receive 81 mm (3 in) of rain annually. Another place, Troudaninna Bore (29°11′44″S 138°59′28″E, altitude : 46 m) in South Australia, from 1893 to 1936, received, in average, 104.9 mm (4.13 inches) of precipitation. From one extreme to another, parts of the far North Queensland coast annually average over 4,000 mm (157 in), with the Australian annual record being 12,461 mm (491 in), set at the summit of Mount Bellenden Ker in 2000. There are four main factors that contribute to the dryness of the Australian landmass:

  • Cold ocean currents off the west coast
  • Low elevation of landforms
  • Dominance of high-pressure systems
  • Shape of the landmass

The average annual rainfall in the Australian desert is low, ranging from 81 to 250 mm (3 to 10 in) per year. Thunderstorms are relatively common in the region, with an average of 15 – 20 thunderstorms per annum. Summer daytime temperatures range from 32 to 40 °C (90 to 104 °F). In winter, this falls to 18 to 23 °C (64 to 73 °F).

The southern parts of Australia get the usual westerly winds and rain-bearing cold fronts that come when the high pressure systems move towards northern Australia during winter. Cold snaps may bring frosts inland, though temperatures near the coast are mild or near mild all year round. Summers in southern Australia are generally dry and hot with coastal sea breezes. During a lengthy dry spell, hot and dry winds from the interior can cause bushfires in some southern and eastern states, though most commonly Victoria and New South Wales.

The tropical areas of northern Australia have a wet summer because of the monsoon. During “the wet”, typically October to April, humid north-westerly winds bring showers and thunderstorms. Occasionally, tropical cyclones can bring heavy rainfall to tropical coastal regions, which is also likely to reach further inland. After the monsoonal season, the dry season comes (“winter”), which brings mostly clear skies and milder conditions.

Rainfall records tend to be concentrated along the east coast of Australia, particularly in tropical north Queensland. The highest 24‑hour rainfall on record in Australia was 907.0 millimetres (35.7 in) in Crohamhurst on 3 February 1893. The highest monthly rainfall on record was 5,387.0 millimetres (212.1 in) recorded at Mount Bellenden Ker, Queensland in January 1979. The highest annual rainfall was 12,461.0 millimetres (490.6 in) recorded also at Mount Bellenden Ker in the year 2000. Additionally, the location which receives the highest average annual rainfall in Australia is Babinda in Queensland with an annual average of 4,279.4 millimetres (168.5 in).

Low rate of evaporation from this very cool body of water result in little evaporation occurring. Hence, rain clouds are sparsely formed and very rarely do they form long enough for a continuous period of rain to be recorded. Australia’s arid/semi-arid zone extends to this region. The absence of any significant mountain range or area of substantial height above sea level, results in very little rainfall caused by orographic uplift. In the east the Great Dividing Range limits rain moving into inland Australia.

Australia has a compact shape, and no significant bodies of water penetrate very far inland. This is important inasmuch as moist winds are prevented from penetrating inland, so keeping rainfall low.

Snow

Snow (a relatively rare occurrence in non-alpine regions of Australia) blankets the town of Robertsoncausing the closure of various transport facilities including the Cockatoo Run (16 August 1996).

Snow (a relatively rare occurrence in non-alpine regions of Australia) blankets the town of Robertsoncausing the closure of various transport facilities including the Cockatoo Run (16 August 1996).

In Australia, snow falls frequently on the highlands near the east coast, in the states of Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania and in the Australian Capital Territory. There is a regular snow season in several areas which have seasonal ski tourism industries. Snow also falls with some regularity on the Great Dividing Range as far north as Stanthorpe, Queensland and in isolated parts of South Australia and Western Australia, but outside these areas, snow is an extremely rare occurrence. Snow has also fallen on Uluru and near Alice Springs on at least one occasion.

Snow at sea level is occasionally recorded on mainland Australia, but is more frequent in Tasmania where snowfalls at sea level can occur during the winter months. Snow has been recorded across most of Tasmania, though it is rare on the northern coast at sea level. Snow is rare in the southernmost capitals like Melbourne and Hobart, falling less than once every five years, and in the other capitals it is unknown (however snow has fallen in the hill suburbs of Perth and Adelaide). However, there are extensive, well-developed ski fields in the Great Dividing Range, a few hours’ drive from Melbourne and Sydney. Light snow generally falls every winter in Canberra, however, and other cities that may receive regular seasonal snowfalls include Orange, Oberon, Lithgow and Katoomba in New South Wales.

The occasional cold snap, caused by cold air drifting north from Antarctica, can cause significant snowfall in rural areas, as well as major cities such as Hobart, Melbourne’s outer mountain suburbs and Canberra. Such occasions are rare, but have occurred in 1958, 1965, 1986, 2005 and 2015, the 1965 event causing snow to fall as far north as Eungella, near Mackay in tropical Queensland. Extreme snow events have also produced snow as far north-west as Longreach in Queensland and in the ranges near Alice Springs, and also in lowland towns such as Dubbo and Wagga Wagga in New South Wales. The frequency and intensity of such events has been decreasing significantly over the past 40 years and the most northerly occurrence of snow in this time frame has been the Bunya Mountains in southern Queensland.

Temperatures

A billabong in the Kakadu National Park. The monsoon climate of northern Australia is hot and humid in summer.

A billabong in the Kakadu National Park. The monsoon climate of northern Australia is hot and humid in summer.

 The tropical savannah zone of Northern Australia is warm to hot all year round. Summers are hot in most of the country with average January maximum temperatures exceeding 30 °C over most areas of the mainland, except for those at high elevations though. Winters are warm in the north and cool in the south, with nightly frosts common in inland areas south of the Tropic of Capricorn. Only at the highly elevated areas do wintertime temperatures approach those found in much of Europe or North America, especially the southern parts.

Temperatures in Australia have followed an increasing trend between the years of 1910 to 2004 by approximately 0.7 °C. Overnight minimum temperatures have warmed more rapidly than daytime maximum temperatures. The observed warming has hastened in recent years. The late-20th century warming has been largely attributed to the increased greenhouse effect. Temperature differences between winter and summer are minor in the tropical region of Australia. However, they are greatest in the southern inland, with seasonal differences along the coast being moderated by the ocean’s proximity. In July, a more common latitudinal distribution of average maximums is apparent, ranging from 30 °C near the north coast to below 3 °C in the mountainous areas of the south-east.

Average minimum temperatures in all seasons are highest in northern Australia and near the coastal areas, and are lowest in the elevated areas of the south-east. The highest average January minimum temperatures (near 27 °C) are found near the north-west coast, while in winter they exceed 20 °C at some coastal locations in northern Australia and on the Torres Strait and Tiwi Islands. In the mountains of New South Wales, it is not unusual to have average low minimum temperatures dipping below 5 °C in January and -5 °C in July. Comparatively, most inland (non-mountainous) areas south of the tropics have average July minimum between 0° and 6 °C.

In the desert, the dry air and clear skies give rather large ranges in temperature between day and night. Ranges of 15 °C being typical and 20 °C not quite unusual. Light nighttime frosts in winter occur over much of the southern half of the arid zone, where mean July minimum temperatures are mostly in the 3-6 °C range. Moving north, frosts become increasingly rare, with mean July minimum being around 10 °C on the northern boundary.

The highest maximums in Australia are recorded in two regions, the Pilbara and Gascoyne regions of north-western Western Australia and the area extending from south-western Queensland across South Australia into south-eastern Western Australia. Many locations in this region have recorded temperatures exceeding 48 °C. In January, average maximum temperatures exceed 35 °C over a large area of the interior and exceed 40 °C over areas in the north-west. The highest summer maximums in the Pilbara and Gascoyne average at around 41 °C (in some years daily maximums consecutively exceed 40 °C for several weeks at a time).

Extremes

The most powerful heatwave in the history of south-eastern Australia occurred in January 1939. Adelaide (46.1 °C on the 12th), Melbourne (45.6 °C on the 13th) and Sydney (45.3 °C on the 14th) all had record high temperatures during this period, as did many other central district areas in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. The record number of consecutive days in Melbourne over 40 °C is five, with Brisbane and Sydney each having two. Heatwaves usually bring by oppressively warm nights, with Oodnadatta, SA recording an Australian record of nine nights above 30 °C in February 2004. Another extreme event was a prolonged period of extensive heatwaves known as the Angry Summer in early 2013.

Marble Bar set a world record of most consecutive days of maximum temperatures above 37.8° Celsius (100 degrees Fahrenheit).

Marble Bar set a world record of most consecutive days of maximum temperatures above 37.8° Celsius (100 degrees Fahrenheit).

Marble Bar achieved 160 consecutive days above 37.8 °C (100° Fahrenheit) in 1923-24. Nyang had an average maximum of 44.8 °C for the months of February 1998 and January 2005, an Australian record. At the other extreme, average January maximums are near 15 °C on the highest peaks of the south-east ranges and near 20 °C in much of Tasmania. In most of the desert region during summer, cool days are rare and usually associated with major rain events – a rather exceptional example occurred in February 1949, when many areas failed to reach 20 °C on one or more days, and the maximum at Boulia, western Queensland was at 14.4 °C, which was 23 °C below normal.

 

Many other locations in Australia, except those above 500 metres, have extreme maximums between 43° and 48 °C. Most Tasmanian sites away from the north coast have had extreme maximums between 35° and 40 °C. The lowest extreme maximums are found along the north coast of Tasmania (e.g. 29.5 °C at Low Head) and at high elevations (27.0 °C at Thredbo). While extreme high temperatures are more common inland than they are near the coast, notable extreme maximum have been observed near the coast; 50.5 °C at Mardie, 49.1 °C at Roebourne, Western Australia, 49.4 °C at Whyalla and 47.9 °C at Ceduna, South Australia.

At lower elevations, most inland places south of the tropics have extreme minimum between -3 °C and -7 °C, and these low temperatures have also occurred in locations within a few kilometres of southern and eastern coasts, such as Sale, Victoria (-5.6 °C), Bega, New South Wales (-8.1 °C), Grove, Tasmania (-7.5 °C) and Taree, New South Wales (-5.0 °C). Many locations in this region have recorded -10 °C or lower, including Gudgenby in the Australian Capital Territory (-14.6 °C) and Woolbrook, New South Wales (-14.5 °C). In the desert, the lowest extreme minimum occur at high elevations, especially around Alice Springs, where the temperature has fallen as low as -7.5 °C.

In the tropics, extreme minimum near or below 0 °C have occurred at many places distant from the coast, as far north as Herberton, Queensland (-5.0 °C). Some locations near tropical coasts, such as Mackay (-0.8 °C), Townsville (0.1 °C) and Kalumburu, Western Australia (0.3 °C) have also recorded temperatures near 0 °C. In contrast, some coastal locations, such as Darwin, have never fallen below 10 °C, and Thursday Island, in the Torres Strait, has an extreme minimum of 16.1 °C. The lowest maximum temperature on record in Australia was −6.9 °C (19.6 °F), recorded on 9 July 1978 at Thredbo Ski Resort in New South Wales. The highest minimum temperature on record was 35.5 °C (95.9 °F), recorded on 24 January 1982 in Arkaroola, South Australia and again on 21 January 2003 in Wittenoom, Western Australia.

A list of extremes can be found in the tables below:

Absolute temperature ranges
MonthMaximum temperaturesMinimum temperatures
°C°Flocation and date°C°Flocation and date
January50.7123.3Oodnadatta, South Australia (2 January 1960)−7.718.1Thredbo Ski Resort, New South Wales (24 January 2000)
February50.5122.9Mardie, Western Australia (19 February 1998)−7.019.4Perisher Ski Resort, New South Wales (17 February 1979)
March47.8118.0Carnarvon, Western Australia (6 March 2007)/Roebourne, Western Australia (4 March 1998)−7.219.0Kiandra, New South Wales (25 March 1964)/Bullocks Flat, New South Wales (31 March 1988)[76]
April45.0113.0Port Hedland, Western Australia (1 April 1948)/Marble Bar, Western Australia (2 April 1928)−13.08.6Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (29 April 2009)
May40.6105.1Bidyadanga, Western Australia (6 May 1990)−13.47.9Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (24 May 2008)
June37.8100.0Wyndham, Western Australia (2 June 1962)−23.0−9.4Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (29 June 1994)
July37.699.7Wyndham, Western Australia (19 July 1996)−19.6−3.3Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (20 July 2010)
August40.0104.0Kalumburu, Western Australia (27 August 1970)−20.6−5.1Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (14 August 1968)
September43.1109.6Roebuck Bay, Western Australia (27 September 2003)−16.71.9Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (20 September 1967)
October46.9116.4Port Hedland, Western Australia (22 October 2002)−12.010.4Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (29 October 2006)
November48.7119.7Birdsville, Queensland (17 November 1990)−9.415.1Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (26 November 1968)[90]
December49.5121.1Birdsville, Queensland (24 December 1972)−9.015.8Thredbo Ski Resort, New South Wales (13 December 1976)[92]

Natural hazards and disasters

Bushfires

Climatic factors contribute to Australia’s high incidence of bushfires, particularly during the summer months. Low relative humidity, wind and lack of rain can cause a small fire, either man-made or caused naturally by lightning strikes, to spread rapidly over large distances. Low humidity, the heat of the sun and lack of water cause vegetation to dry out becoming a perfect fuel for the fire. High winds fan the flames, increasing their intensity and the speed and distance at which they can travel.

Many of the worst bushfires in eastern Australia, such as the 1983 Ash Wednesday fires, accompany El Niño-Southern Oscillation events which tend to cause a warm, dry and windy climate.[94] The worst bushfires in Australian history occurred on Black Saturday in February 2009. The human death toll of the disaster was 173, and over 2000 homes were lost.

Flooding

Though Australia is generally dry and arid, a large portion of the country is in the tropics. Rainfall in these areas is extremely heavy. With some are areas recording world record breaking rain, such as the mountains which lie to the south west of Cairns. Through La Niñayears the eastern seaboard of Australia records above average rainfall usually creating damaging floods.

The 2010–2011 La Nina system has broken many rainfall records in Australia, particularly in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, which have seen extensive flooding which has caused major damage to infrastructure and crops. The central east area of Queensland, an area the size of Germany and France combined, was under water in 2010–2011. The estimated damage bill could reach into the billions.

Some places that see heavy monthly (or yearly) rainfall include: Darwin, Cairns, Townsville, Rockhampton, Innisfail, Strahan, Tasmania, Queenstown, Thursday Island and Mount Read (Tasmania).

Global warming

Australian annual average temperature anomaly from 1910 to 2009 with five-year locally weighted ('Lowess') trend line. Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology.

Australian annual average temperature anomaly from 1910 to 2009 with five-year locally weighted (‘Lowess’) trend line. Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology.

According to climate scientists, climate change is predicted by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) to have significant effects on the climate of and extreme weather events in Australia, increasing temperatures and the likelihood of heat waves. According to the Bureau of Meteorology, Australia’s annual mean temperature for 2009 was 0.90 °C (1.62 °F) above the 1961-90 average, making it the nation’s second warmest year since high-quality records began in 1910. Summer in both 2013 and 2014 continued this trend of record-breaking heat–2014 was Australia’s third hottest year on record and 2013 broke national records.

In January 2013, the Bureau of Meteorology altered its weather forecasting chart’s temperature scale to include a range, coloured purple, between 52° and 54 °C.

Coastal communities face risks from sea level rise, albeit over a long period of time based on current estimates of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. The Gold Coast, being built on sand and with many canal developments, could be considered particularly at risk. Suburbs of Sydney like Drummoyne and Concord on rivers like the Parramatta River face risks of inundation of low-lying areas such as parks (such as Timbrell Park and Majors Bay Reserve) reclaimed from mudflats at the heads of bays, or massive expenses in rebuilding seawalls to higher levels.

Currently, there are several environmental movements and campaigners advocating for action on climate change. One such campaign is “The Big Switch”, Australia’s largest community climate change campaign.

New projections for Australia’s changing climate includes:

  • droughts are likely to become more frequent, particularly in the south-west
  • evaporation rates are likely to increase, particularly in the north and east
  • high-fire-danger weather is likely to increase in the south-east
  • sea levels will continue to rise

Drought

Drought-affected paddock in the New South Wales farming region of the Riverina

Drought-affected paddock in the New South Wales farming region of the Riverina

Drought in Australia is defined by rainfall over a three-month period being in the lowest ten percent of amounts having been recorded for that region in the past. This definition takes into account that low rainfall is a relative term and rainfall deficiencies need to be compared to typical rainfall patterns including seasonal variations. Specifically drought in Australia is defined in relation to a rainfall deficiency of pastoral leases and is determined by decile analysis applied to a certain area.

Historical climatic records are now sufficiently reliable to profile climate variability taking into account expectations for regions. State Governments are responsible for declaring a region drought affected and the declaration will take into account factors other than rainfall.

Cyclones

Australia is affected by tropical cyclones which primarily occur between December and April but have developed in November and May, as well.[106] Cyclones over mainland Australia occur on average five to six times each year.The region between Broome and Exmouth are most prone to cyclones. Tropical cyclones are known to bring destructive winds, heavy rain with flooding creating storm surges along the coast, causing inundation in low-lying areas. The strongest Australian region cyclone was Cyclone Monica in 2006 which had wind gusts in excess of 350 km/h (220 mph). Cyclones can also move inland, decaying to a rain depression, which dump heavy rain in these areas and causing flooding.

Cyclone Monica at peak intensity

Cyclone Monica at peak intensity

The worst cyclones of Australia have caused billions of dollars of damage and many deaths. Cyclone Tracy crossed directly over Darwin in 1974, 71 people were killed. Adjusted for inflation it was Australia’s most damaging cyclone. Cyclone Mahina in 1899 brought a storm surge to Far North Queensland reaching 13 m (43 ft) high, causing 400 deaths and making it the worst natural disaster to befall Australia. Cyclone Larry struck North Queensland and passed over Innisfail in 2006 causing damages estimated at A$1.5 billion but no lives were lost. Cyclone Yasi caused severe flooding and had a total estimated cost of A$3.5 billion making it the second most costliest cyclone to strike Australia.

Blizzards

Blizzards are not common in mainland Australia, but occur frequently in the Snowy Mountains in New South Wales and Victoria. When blizzards do occur, they can affect the Tasmanian Highlands and, particularly, Mount Wellington, which towers over the Tasmanian capital Hobart. Blizzards do not affect any major towns or cities, because there are no populated areas located in the mountains except for the ski resort towns of New South Wales and Victoria.

Dust storms

A dust storm or sandstorm, a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions, arises when a gust front passes or when the wind force exceeds the threshold value where loose sand and dust are removed from the dry surface. Particles are transported by saltation and suspension, causing soil erosion from one place and deposition in another.

The term sandstorm is used most often in the context of desert sandstorms, especially in the Sahara, when, in addition to fine particles obscuring visibility, a considerable amount of larger sand particles moves closer to the surface. The term dust storm is more likely to be used when finer particles are blown long distances, especially when the dust storm affects urban areas.

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In limited circumstances we also may use "web beacons" to collect anonymous, non-personal information about your use of our Web site and the sites of selected affiliated partners, and your use of e-mails, special promotions or newsletters we may send to you from time to time. Web beacons are tiny graphic image files imbedded in a web page or e-mail that provide a presence on the web page or e-mail and send back to its home server information from the Users' browser. The information collected by web beacons allows us to statistically monitor how many people are using our site and selected affiliated business partners sites, or are opening our e-mails, and for what purposes. It may be possible to link non-personal web beacon information to Personal Information collected.

As noted in the discussions of cookies and web beacons (see above), we collect anonymous, non-personal information about your use of e-mails and newsletters that we may send to you from time to time. In some cases, when you click on a link or an advertisement in an e-mail or newsletter, your browser may be momentarily directed to the site of a third party which, acting on DigiMarCon behalf (see Disclosure to Web site Service and Content Contractors, below), notes or "counts" your response to the e-mail or newsletter before re-directing your browser to its proper destination. This re-direction process will not be apparent to you.

Sponsors, business partners or advertisers on the Site or in e-mails, special promotions or newsletters we may send to you from time to time may also use their own cookies or web beacons when you click on their advertisement or link to their site or service, or even if the advertisement simply appears on a page or in an e-mail that you are viewing. Some advertisers use companies other than DigiMarCon to serve their ads and to monitor users' responses to ads, and these companies ("Ad Servers") may also collect non-personal information through the use of cookies or web beacons on our Web site. In certain situations, information collection may be facilitated by momentarily directing your browser to the site of an Ad Server or other third party acting on behalf of the sponsor, business partner, or advertiser before re-directing your browser to its proper destination (e.g., back to DigiMarCon to show the ad, or to the advertiser's Web site); this re-direction process will not be apparent to you. We do not control these third parties' use of cookies or web beacons, or how they manage the non-personal information they gather through them. However, you should review the privacy policy of other sites you visit or link to from our site to understand how these other sites use cookies and how they use the information they collect through the use of cookies or web beacons on their own sites.

This Privacy Policy does not apply when you use DigiMarCon public forums if and when they become available. As a service to our users, DigiMarCon may feature chat rooms and bulletin boards where users can share information and support one another or where users can post questions for other users to answer. You should be aware that any information shared in a chat room, bulletin board, or other type of posting is public information and may be seen, disclosed to or collected by third parties that do not adhere to our Privacy Policy. You should think carefully before disclosing any personal information in any public forum.

This Privacy Policy does not apply to any information, such as business information, resumes, ideas, concepts or inventions sent to DigiMarCon by e-mail to the various DigiMarCon departments listed on the DigiMarCon Web site. If you want to keep business information, resumes, ideas, concepts or inventions private or proprietary, do not send them in an e-mail to DigiMarCon. We try to answer every e-mail in a timely manner, but are not always able to do so.

II. DISCLOSURE OF YOUR INFORMATION

Except as set forth in this Section II, or as specifically agreed to by you, DigiMarCon will employ best efforts to not use or disclose any Personal Information it gathers from you unless reasonably required in order to answer your questions, provide products and/or services you may request or purchase from DigiMarCon (such as, information we need to share with our credit card internet gateway), or to comply with governmental or internal record-keeping requirements as reasonably required. We may release Personal Information to third parties: (1) to comply with valid legal requirements such as a law, regulation, search warrant, subpoena or court order; or (2) in special cases, such as a financial threat to you or others. In the event that we are legally compelled to disclose your Personal Information to a third party, we will notify you unless doing so would violate the law or court order.

DigiMarCon may disclose Personal Information to its corporate subsidiaries or entities affiliated with DigiMarCon. Any Personal Information provided to DigiMarCon subsidiaries or entities affiliated with DigiMarCon will be treated by those subsidiaries and affiliated entities in accordance with the terms of this Privacy Policy.

DigiMarCon operations and maintenance contractors may sometimes have limited access to your Personal Information in the course of providing products or services to DigiMarCon. These contractors include vendors and suppliers that provide us with technology, services, and/or content related to operation and maintenance of our Web site. These contractors also may have access to your e-mail address to send newsletters or special promotions to you on our behalf or to send e-mails to you for purposes such as conducting market research on our behalf. Access to your Personal Information by these contractors is limited to the information reasonably necessary in order for the contractor to perform its limited function for DigiMarCon.

Certain content and products and services offered to you through our Web site are served on Web sites hosted and operated by a company other than DigiMarCon ("Third Party Contractor Web sites"). Therefore, if you purchase services or products through one of these Third Party Contractor Web sites, you will be purchasing it from the Third Party Contractor and not from DigiMarCon. Further, you should be aware that any information you disclose once you access these other sites is not subject to this Privacy Policy. DigiMarCon does not endorse and is not responsible for the privacy practices of these Third Party Contractor Web sites and, therefore, you should review the privacy policy posted on the other site to understand how that Third Party Contractor Web site collects and uses your Personal Information. Also, if you have reason to believe that you may be leaving our Web site and entering a Third Party Contractor Web site, you should be cautious about providing any Personal Information until you have reviewed the privacy policy posted on the other site.

DigiMarCon is a contractor and provides co-branded products and/or services to Web sites hosted and operated by companies other than DigiMarCon ("Channel Partner Web sites"). You can only access these co-branded content and products and/or services through the Channel Partner Web site. The co-branded DigiMarCon pages that you may access through a Channel Partner Web site have different registration processes and opportunities for information collection, and Personal Information that you provide on these pages may be shared with the Channel Partners. Each of these co-branded DigiMarCon sites has its own privacy policy posted on that site. Therefore, if you visit one of these co-branded DigiMarCon sites, please read the privacy policy that is posted on that site, as well as the individual privacy policy of the Channel Partner Web site.

In addition to the Third Party Contractor Web sites that you may access as described above, for your convenience there are links to Web sites operated by companies other than DigiMarCon that are not contractors who provide content, products, and/or services through our Web site ("Third Party Web sites"). These links may be found in advertisements, referenced within content, or placed beside the names or logos of sponsors or affiliated business partners of DigiMarCon. DigiMarCon does not disclose your Personal Information to these Third Party Web sites without obtaining your consent. DigiMarCon does not endorse and is not responsible for the privacy practices or content of these sites. If you choose to link to one of these Third Party Web sites, you should review the privacy policy posted on this other site to understand how that Third Party Web site collects and uses your Personal Information.

DigiMarCon may provide to third parties non-personal information about you that does not allow you to be identified or contacted and that is combined with the non-personal information of other users ("Aggregate Information"). For example, we might inform third parties regarding the number of users of our site and the activities they conduct while on our site. We might also inform a company that performs services or that provides products and/or services to DigiMarCon (that may or may not be a DigiMarCon business partner or an advertiser on our site) that "50% of our users live in the USA" or that "85% of our users have purchased products and/or services which can be downloaded from DigiMarCon Web site." Depending on the circumstances, we may or may not charge third parties for this Aggregate Information. We may not limit the third parties' use of the Aggregate Information.

DigiMarCon wants your Personal Information to remain as secure and accurate as possible. We implement appropriate measures and processes to protect your Personal Information and maintain its quality, such as encryption. Although we make reasonable efforts to protect your Personal Information from loss, misuse, or alteration by third parties, you should be aware that there is always some risk involved in transmitting information over the Internet. There is also some risk that thieves could find a way to thwart our security systems.

You will be given the option to opt in or sign up for recurring informational/promotional e-mails from DigiMarCon and/or third parties. You may opt out of receiving e-mails from or on behalf of DigiMarCon. You may opt out of receiving these e-mails and newsletters at any time. When you have received a newsletter you wish to stop, click on the "reply" button in your mail program, then type in the word "UNSUBSCRIBE" in the "Subject" field and send. DigiMarCon Customer Service will unsubscribe you.

You may also have the option of receiving e-mails or newsletters from third parties, participating in research or marketing surveys and participating in other activities. You may exercise these options by placing a check mark beside a statement that expresses a preference for receiving these communications or participating in these activities. You may change your decision at any time by following the directions regarding how to unsubscribe from these e-mails or newsletters.

This privacy statement applies only to the Site. The DigiMarCon Web site does contain links to other sites. Once you enter another Web site (whether through an advertisement, service, or content link), be aware that DigiMarCon has no control over and is not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage you to look for and review the privacy statements of each and every Web site that you visit through a link or advertisement on DigiMarCon Web site or any site that collects Personal Information from you.

You can always contact us in order to (1) delete your Personal Information from our systems, (2) update the Personal Information that you have provided to us, and (3) change your preferences with respect to marketing contacts or other activities, by e-mailing us at update@digimarcon.com. Such changes will not have any effect on other information that DigiMarCon maintains. If you have a complaint or problem you may e-mail us at support@digimarcon.com and the customer service department will forward your complaint to the appropriate internal DigiMarCon department for a response or resolution. We try to answer every e-mail in a timely manner but are not always able to do so.

You should be aware that it may not be technologically possible to remove each and every record of the information you have provided to DigiMarCon from our servers. The need to back-up our systems to protect information from inadvertent loss means that a copy of your Personal Information may exist in a non-erasable form that may be difficult or impossible for us to locate. Nevertheless, upon receiving your request, we will endeavor to delete all Personal Information stored in the databases we actively use for research and daily business activities, as well as other readily searchable media.

In the future and without notice to you, we may make significant or non-significant changes to our privacy policy affecting the use of the Personal Information you provide to us or other information we have gathered. You should visit our Web site from time to time and read our Privacy Policy then in effect to familiarize yourself with the current version.

Acceptance of Terms of Use of This Website. DigiMarCon, LLC ("Company") makes this website (the "Site"), including all information, documents, text, and graphics on the Site (collectively, the "Site Materials") as well as all software, products, and services offered and/or operated by Company and/or third parties through the Site (collectively, the "Products and Services"), available for your use subject to the terms and conditions set forth in this document, as may be revised from time to time by Company (collectively, the "Terms of Use"). BY ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE IN ANY WAY, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, EVALUATING, DOWNLOADING, PURCHASING, AND/OR USING ANY OF THE SITE MATERIALS OR PRODUCTS AND SERVICES DISPLAYED AND/OR OFFERED ON THIS SITE, OR BY MERELY BROWSING THIS SITE, YOU EXPRESSLY ACKNOWLEDGE THAT YOU HAVE READ AND AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF USE AND COMPANY'S PRIVACY POLICY, WHICH IS INCORPORATED HEREIN BY REFERENCE.

This Site is intended for lawful use by persons over eighteen (18) years of age. Company reserves the right to change the Terms of Use and other Company guidelines and policies (including, but not limited to, the Privacy Policy and the Registration Terms and Conditions) posted on the Site from time to time at its sole discretion, with or without notice, and the revised Terms of Use and other revised guidelines and policies shall be posted on the Site. Your continued use of the Site, or any Products and Services accessible through it, constitutes your acceptance of the revised Terms of Use, and your use of the Site will be subject to the most current version of the Terms of Use, policies, and guidelines posted on the Site at the time of such use. Therefore, you should periodically check the Terms of Use and policies on Company's home page to view the then current versions. If you breach any of the Terms of Use, your authorization to use this Site and any authorized use of Site Materials shall automatically terminate, any Site Materials downloaded or printed from the Site, whether authorized or unauthorized, must be immediately destroyed and, in certain cases, you may also be required to immediately stop using Company's Products and/or Services.

Certain Products and Services available on or through this Site are available only to persons who have purchased or subscribed to them under a paid or trial subscription agreement with Company or one of its affiliates (the "Subscribers") or persons invited by Company or one of its affiliates to evaluate such Products and/or Services, or who have requested the right to perform such an evaluation.

Intellectual Property; Limited License to Users. This Site, the Site Materials, and the Products and Services are protected by copyright, trademark, patent, and/or other intellectual property laws, and any unauthorized use of the Site, Site Materials, and/or Products and Services may violate such laws in addition to the Terms of Use. Except as expressly provided herein, Company and its licensors and suppliers do not grant any express or implied license to the Site, Site Materials, Products or Services. You agree not to copy, republish, download, transmit, modify, rent, lease, loan, sell, assign, distribute, license, sublicense, reverse engineer, or create derivative works based on, the Site, the Site Materials, or its Products and Services, except if expressly authorized herein.

Use of Services. When purchasing or using Products and/or Services on this Site that are offered by Company, you shall be subject to any agreements or licenses applicable to such Products and/or Services (“Specific Agreement”) and to the Terms of Use. Specific Agreements may contain terms and conditions in addition to those in the Terms of Use but all terms and conditions of the Specific Agreements and the Terms of Use shall apply. In the event of a conflict between the Terms of Use and any Specific Agreement, the Specific Agreement shall control with respect to your rights to the Product or Service.

In addition to the Products and Services offered by Company, this Site also advertises, offers, or makes available information, products and/or services provided by third parties (collectively, the "Third Party Materials"). Third Party products and/or services are governed by separate agreements or licenses with the Third Parties. Company offers no guarantees and assumes no responsibility or liability of any type with respect to the Third Party Materials, including any liability resulting from incompatibility between Third Party products and/or services and the products and/or services provided by Company. You agree that you will not hold Company responsible or liable with respect to the Third Party Materials or seek to do so.

Use of Software, Products, and Services. The software, Products and Services, and accompanying documentation that is made available through this Site, whether made available by downloading or otherwise, is the copyrighted and/or patented work of Company and/or its licensors and/or suppliers. Use of the software, Products and Services, and accompanying documentation is governed by the terms of the agreement or license that accompanies or is included with such software or Products and Services. You will not be able to download or install any software or Product that is accompanied by or includes a license agreement, and you will not be able to use any Service, unless you agree to the terms of the applicable license agreement. If you do not agree to such terms, you will not be able to use the software, Products or Services. Absent a license agreement that accompanies the software or Products and Services, use of the software or Products and Services will be governed by the Terms of Use. You agree that you will not decompile, reverse engineer, or otherwise attempt to discover the source code of the software and Products and Services available on this Site, and that you will not decompile or reverse engineer any of the Products and Services.

Use of Site Materials. Except as may be indicated to the contrary elsewhere on this Site, you may view, download, and print the Site Materials available on this Site subject to the following conditions:

  • The Site Materials may be used solely for personal, non-commercial, informational purposes.
  • The Site Materials may not be modified or altered in any way.
  • The Site Materials on the Site may not be distributed or sold, rented, leased, or licensed to others.
  • You may not remove any copyright or other proprietary notices contained in the Site Materials.
  • Company reserves the right to revoke the authorization to view, download, copy, and/or print the Site Materials available on this Site at any time, and any such use shall be discontinued immediately upon notice from Company.
  • Any rights granted to you by Company constitute a license and not a transfer of title.

Important Exceptions: Various sections of the Site (such as, by way of example only, demonstrations which show the use and/or utilization of Company Products and/or Services in the movie production industry, or showcase the work of creative professionals) belong to their creators (the "Third Party Content"), may be protected by copyright or other proprietary laws, and are for display and demonstration purposes only. Accordingly, you may not download, use, copy or print Third Party Content unless there is a notice associated with the Third Party Content work expressly permitting downloading, use, copy and/or printing. The rights specified above i.e., the right to view, download, and print the Site Materials and Third Party Content available on this Site are not applicable to the design or layout of this Site. Elements of this Site are protected by copyright and other laws and may not be copied, reproduced or imitated in whole or in part.

Trademark Information. The trademarks, logos, and service marks ("Marks") displayed on this Site are the property of Company or third parties. You are not permitted to use the Marks without the prior written consent of the owner of the Mark. DigiMarCon is a trademark of Company.

Submission of Information. Information submitted through this Site may be accessed and used by a Company service provider. Although Company and Company's service provider (Paypal, Inc) each take certain steps in an effort to protect the electronic transmission of credit card numbers or social security numbers ("Financial Information") that you submit through the Site, Company does not guarantee the security of any information transmitted to or from the Site. You understand and agree to assume the security risk for any information you provide using the Site.

Other than the Financial Information, do not send any confidential or proprietary information through the Site. Except for the Financial Information or personally identifiable information relative to you, any information you do send through the Site will be deemed NOT to be confidential ("Non-Confidential Information"). For any Non-Confidential Information you do send, post or submit, you hereby grant Company and its affiliates, successors, and assigns an unrestricted, royalty-free, irrevocable, worldwide license to use, reproduce, display, perform, modify, transmit and distribute the Non-Confidential Information, and agree that Company is free to use any ideas, concepts, know-how or techniques that you send Company for any purpose and in any manner whatsoever without compensation to you or any other person sending the Non-Confidential Information. You represent and warrant that you own or otherwise control all of the rights to the Non-Confidential Information and that public posting and use of your content by Company or its affiliates, successors or assigns, will not infringe or violate the rights of any third party. If you submit personally identifiable information via the Site, Company will treat it in accordance with the Privacy Policy found on the home page of this Site and our service provider will treat it in accordance with its Privacy Policy, which can be found here: https://cms.paypal.com/us/cgi-bin/marketingweb?cmd=_render-content&content_ID=ua/Privacy_full&am/

You are prohibited from posting or transmitting to or from the Site any unlawful, threatening, libelous, defamatory, obscene, scandalous, inflammatory, pornographic, or profane material, or any other material that could give rise to any civil or criminal liability under the law.

User Conduct. In using the Site, including all Products and Services available through it, you agree:

  • not to disrupt or interfere with any other user's use or enjoyment of the Site or affiliated or linked sites;
  • not to upload or otherwise transmit through the Site any viruses or other harmful, disruptive, or destructive files;
  • not to create a false identity;
  • not to use or attempt to use another's account, password, services, or systems;
  • not to attempt to transmit any content which you are not authorized to transmit; and
  • not to disrupt or interfere with the security of, or otherwise cause harm to, the Site, or any Products and Services, Site Materials, system resources, accounts, passwords, servers, or networks connected to or accessible through the Site or any affiliated or linked sites.

Managing Content and Communications. Although it is not our intention to do so, Company reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to delete or remove your content from the Site and to restrict, suspend, or terminate your access to all or part of this Site, at any time if we have cause to do so (including, without limitation, our good faith belief that you have violated the Terms of Use) without prior notice or liability. In addition, Company reserves the right to delete or remove your content if the applicable subscription or license has expired or lapsed or if Company has a good faith belief that you have violated these Terms of Use or any law or regulation, or that such deletion or removal is necessary to comply with the law or to protect the rights of Company or others. Company may, but is not obligated to, monitor or review (i) any areas on the Site where users transmit content, and (ii) the substance of any content. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Company will have no liability related to your content arising under the laws of copyright, libel, privacy, obscenity, or otherwise. Company also disclaims all liability with respect to the misuse, loss, modification, destruction, or unavailability of any of your content.

Use and Protection of Account Number and Password. You are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of your account number, account name, and/or password, where and when applicable to the Site. You are responsible for damages resulting from all uses of your account number, account name, and/or password, whether actually or expressly authorized by you, unless access to your account number, account name, and/or password was obtained through no fault or negligence of your own.

WARRANTIES AND DISCLAIMERS. EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED OTHERWISE IN A WRITTEN AGREEMENT BETWEEN YOU AND COMPANY, THIS SITE, AND ALL SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES ACCESSIBLE THROUGH THIS SITE ARE PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, PERFORMANCE, OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR THE WARRANTY OF NON-INFRINGEMENT. WITHOUT LIMITING THE FOREGOING,COMPANY MAKES NO WARRANTY THAT (i) THE SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES WILL MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS; (ii) THE SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED, TIMELY, SECURE, ALWAYS AVAILABLE, OR ERROR-FREE; (iii) THE RESULTS THAT MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE USE OF THE SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES WILL BE EFFECTIVE, ACCURATE, OR RELIABLE; (iv) THE QUALITY OF ANY SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES PURCHASED OR ACCESSIBLE BY YOU THROUGH THE SITE WILL MEET YOUR EXPECTATIONS; AND (v) ANY ERRORS IN THE PRODUCTS AND SERVICES OBTAINED FROM OR USED THROUGH THE SITE, OR ANY DEFECTS IN THE SITE, THE SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES, WILL BE CORRECTED.

THIS SITE COULD INCLUDE TECHNICAL OR OTHER MISTAKES, INACCURACIES, OR TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS.COMPANY MAY MAKE CHANGES TO THE SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND/OR SERVICES AT THIS SITE, INCLUDING THE PRICES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF ANY PRODUCTS AND SERVICES LISTED HEREIN, AT ANY TIME WITHOUT NOTICE. THE SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND/OR SERVICES AT THIS SITE MAY BE OUT OF DATE, AND COMPANY MAKES NO COMMITMENT TO UPDATE SUCH SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND/OR SERVICES. YOU UNDERSTAND AND ACKNOWLEDGE THAT (i) COMPANY DOES NOT CONTROL, ENDORSE, OR ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY CONTENT, PRODUCTS, OR SERVICES OFFERED AND/OR PERFORMED BY THIRD PARTIES THROUGH THE SITE, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THOSE PROVIDED BY THIRD PARTY VENDORS OR THOSE ACCESSIBLE THROUGH LINKS ON THE SITE; (ii) COMPANY MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WHATSOEVER ABOUT ANY SUCH THIRD PARTIES, THEIR CONTENT, PRODUCTS, OR SERVICES; (iii) ANY DEALINGS YOU MAY HAVE WITH SUCH THIRD PARTIES ARE AT YOUR OWN RISK; AND (iv) COMPANY SHALL NOT BE LIABLE OR RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY CONTENT, PRODUCTS, OR SERVICES OFFERED AND/OR PERFORMED BY THIRD PARTIES.

THE USE, INSTALLATION, AND/OR DOWNLOADING OF ANY SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES THROUGH THE SITE IS DONE AT YOUR OWN DISCRETION AND RISK AND WITH YOUR AGREEMENT THAT YOU WILL BE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE TO YOUR COMPUTER OR COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS OR SERVICES, LOSS OF DATA, OR OTHER HARM THAT RESULTS FROM SUCH ACTIVITIES. COMPANY ASSUMES NO LIABILITY FOR ANY COMPUTER VIRUS OR OTHER SIMILAR SOFTWARE CODE THAT IS INSTALLED, TRANSMITTED, OR DOWNLOADED TO YOUR COMPUTER OR COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS OR SERVICES FROM THE SITE OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES APPEARING ON AND/OR OFFERED THROUGH THE SITE. NO ADVICE OR INFORMATION, WHETHER ORAL OR WRITTEN, OBTAINED BY YOU FROMCOMPANY OR THROUGH OR FROM THE SITE SHALL CREATE ANY WARRANTY NOT EXPRESSLY STATED IN THE TERMS OF USE.

SOME STATES OR JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES OR LIMITATIONS ON HOW LONG AN IMPLIED WARRANTY MAY LAST, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. TO THE EXTENT PERMISSIBLE, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES ARE LIMITED TO NINETY (90) DAYS.

LIMITATION OF LIABILITY. IN NO EVENT INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, NEGLIGENCE, SHALL COMPANY, ITS SUBSIDIARIES, AFFILIATES, AGENTS, OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, SHAREHOLDERS, ATTORNEYS, EMPLOYEES, PARTNERS, LICENSORS, OR SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE TO YOU OR ANY THIRD PARTY FOR ANY SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THOSE RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS, WHETHER OR NOT COMPANY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES OR SUCH DAMAGES ARE FORESEEABLE, AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OF OR THE INABILITY TO USE THIS SITE, THE SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES, THE STATEMENTS OR ACTIONS OF ANY THIRD PARTY ON OR THROUGH THE SITE, ANY DEALINGS WITH VENDORS OR OTHER THIRD PARTIES, ANY UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS TO OR ALTERATION OF YOUR TRANSMISSIONS OR DATA, ANY INFORMATION THAT IS SENT OR RECEIVED OR NOT SENT OR RECEIVED, ANY FAILURE TO STORE OR LOSS OF DATA, FILES, OR OTHER CONTENT, ANY SERVICES AVAILABLE THROUGH THE SITE THAT ARE DELAYED OR INTERRUPTED, OR ANY WEB SITE REFERENCED OR LINKED TO FROM THIS SITE.

SOME JURISDICTIONS PROHIBIT THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES. ACCORDINGLY, THE LIMITATIONS AND EXCLUSIONS SET FORTH ABOVE MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.

International Users. This Site can be accessed from countries around the world and may contain references to Company Products and Services that are not available in your country. These references do not imply that Company intends to announce or provide such Products or Services in your country. The Site is controlled, operated, and administered by Company from its offices within the United States of America. Company makes no representation that the Site, or the Site Materials, Products, and Services appearing on or available through the Site, are appropriate, legal, or available for use at other locations outside the United States, and access to the Site from territories where the Site or any of the Site Materials, Products, and/or Services are illegal is prohibited. If you access the Site from a location outside the United States, you are responsible for compliance with all applicable laws.

Indemnity and Liability. You agree to indemnify and hold Company, and its subsidiaries, affiliates, officers, directors, shareholders, attorneys, agents, employees, licensors, suppliers, co-branders or other partners harmless from any claim or demand, including reasonable attorneys' fees and damages of any kind, made by any third party due to or arising out of content you submit to Company and/or transmit through the Site (including, without limitation, any content or computer viruses), your use of the Site or any Site Materials, your connection to the Site, your violation of the Terms of Use, the actions of any of your employees or agents in conjunction with the Site, or your violation of any rights of another person or entity or any and all laws and regulations applicable to these Terms of Use, and/or your use of Company's Products and/or Services.

Governing Law and Jurisdiction. This Site (excluding linked sites) is controlled by Company from its offices within the State of Delaware, United States of America. By accessing this Site, you and Company agree that all matters relating to your access to, or use of, this Site shall be governed by the statutes and laws of the State of Delaware, without regard to the conflicts of laws principles thereof. You and Company also agree and hereby submit to the exclusive personal jurisdiction and venue of the state and federal courts located in Wilmington, Delaware, USA.

General. The Terms of Use and the other guidelines, policies, licenses, and disclaimers posted on the Site constitute the entire agreement between Company and you with respect to your use of the Site. If for any reason a court of competent jurisdiction finds any provision of the Terms of Use or portion thereof to be unenforceable, that provision shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to effect the intent of the parties as reflected by that provision, and the remainder of the Terms of Use shall continue in full force and effect. Any failure by Company to enforce or exercise any provision of the Terms of Use or related right shall not constitute a waiver of that right or provision. The section titles used in the Terms of Use are purely for convenience and carry with them no legal or contractual effect.

DigiMarCon Auckland - Inquiries

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